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It is a sweet, lightly fermented palm wine , [] and is found in bars in towns and villages across the country. Poyo bars are areas of lively informal debate about politics, football , basketball, entertainment and other issues.

Media in Sierra Leone began with the introduction of the first printing press in Africa at the start of the 19th century.

A strong free journalistic tradition developed with the creation of a number of newspapers. In the s, the country became a journalist hub for Africa, with professionals travelling to the country from across the continent.

At the end of the 19th century, the industry went into decline, and when radio was introduced in the s, it became the primary communication media in the country.

The service began broadcasting television in , with coverage extended to all the districts in the country in The Sierra Leone constitution guarantees freedom of speech , and freedom of the press ; however, the government maintains strong control of media, and at times restricts these rights in practice.

Under legislation enacted in , all newspapers must register with the Ministry of Information and pay sizeable registration fees.

In , President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah committed to reforming the laws governing the press and media to create a freer system for journalists to work in.

Print media is not widely read in Sierra Leone, especially outside Freetown and other major cities, partially due to the low levels of literacy in the country.

The majority of newspapers are privately run and are often critical of the government. The standard of print journalism tends to be low owing to lack of training, and people trust the information published in newspapers less than that found on the radio.

Stations mainly consist of local commercial stations with a limited broadcast range, combined with a few stations with national coverage — Capital Radio Sierra Leone being the largest of the commercial stations.

This merger eventually happened in after the necessary legislation was enacted. SLBC transmits radio on FM and has two television services, one of which is uplinked by satellite for international consumption.

Outside the capital Freetown and other major cities, television is not watched by a great many people, although Bo, Kenema and Makeni are served by their own relays of the main SLBC service.

There are a number of religious funded TV stations that operate intermittently. In , a pay-per-view service was also introduced by GTV as part of a pan-African television service in addition to the nine-year-old sub-Saharan Digital satellite television service DStv originating from Multichoice Africa in South Africa.

GTV subsequently went out of business, leaving DStv as the only provider of subscription satellite television in the country.

A number of organisations planned to operate digital terrestrial subscription TV services, with Multichoice's Go TV having built infrastructure ahead of getting a licence and ultimately failing to get a licence.

There are several main internet service providers ISPs operating in the country. Problems experienced with access to the Internet include an intermittent electricity supply and a slow connection speed in the country outside Freetown.

The arts in Sierra Leone are a mixture of tradition and hybrid African and western styles. Odelay mask by Temne people.

Brooklyn Museum. Association football is by far the most popular sport in Sierra Leone. Children, youth and adult are frequently seen playing street football across Sierra Leone.

There are organised youth and adult football tournaments across the country, and there are various primary and secondary schools with football teams across Sierra Leone.

The Sierra Leone national football team, popularly known as the Leone Stars , represents the country in international competitions. When the national football team, the Leone Stars, have a match, Sierra Leoneans across the country come together united in support of the national team and people rush to their local radio and television stations to follow the live match.

The country's national television network, The Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation SLBC broadcasts the national football team live match, along with many local radio stations across the country.

When the Leone Stars win an important match, many youth across the county rush to the street to celebrate. Many of the Sierra Leone national team footballers play for teams based in Europe although virtually all of them started professional football in the Sierra Leone National Premier League.

Many of the national team footballers are celebrities across Sierra Leone and they are often well known by the general population.

Fourteen clubs from across the country compete in the Sierra Leone Premier League. East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool have an intense rivalry and when they play each other the national stadium in Freetown is often sold out and supporters of both clubs often clash with each other before and after the game.

There is a huge police presence inside and outside the national stadium during a match between the two great rivals to prevent a clash. Many Sierra Leonean youth follow the local football league.

The Sierra Leone cricket team represents Sierra Leone in international cricket competitions, and is among the best in West Africa.

It became an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council in It made its international debut at the African Affiliates Championship, where it finished last of eight teams.

But at the equivalent tournament in , Division Three of the African region of the World Cricket League, it finished as runner-up to Mozambique , and just missed a promotion to Division Two.

In , the Sierra Leone Under team finished second in the African Under Championship in Zambia, thus qualifying for the Under World Cup qualifying tournament with nine other teams.

Basketball is not a very popular sport in Sierra Leone. The Sierra Leone national basketball team represents Sierra Leone in international men's basketball competitions and is controlled by the Sierra Leone Basketball Federation.

Michael Jordan, in particular, is the most famous basketball player in the country and he is very popular among the general population.

Although tennis is not very popular in the country, up-and-coming American player Frances Tiafoe is the son of two Sierra Leoneans who emigrated to the United States.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country on the coast of West Africa. Coat of arms. Rank based on figures Since 1 March Main article: History of Sierra Leone.

Main article: Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate. This article's sections on History between — , and Economy includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.

Please help to improve this article's sections on History between — , and Economy by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Further information: Sierra Leone Civil War. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

February Main article: Sierra Leone mudslides. Main article: Geography of Sierra Leone. See also: Wildlife of Sierra Leone. Main article: Politics of Sierra Leone.

Main article: Judiciary of Sierra Leone. Main article: Foreign relations of Sierra Leone. Main article: Administrative divisions of Sierra Leone. Main article: Military of Sierra Leone.

Main article: Human rights in Sierra Leone. Main article: Economy of Sierra Leone. Further information: Agriculture in Sierra Leone.

Further information: Mining in Sierra Leone. Main article: Transport in Sierra Leone. Main article: Religion in Sierra Leone.

Religion in Sierra Leone [1] Religion percent Islam. Further information: Ethnic groups in Sierra Leone. Main article: Education in Sierra Leone.

Main article: Health in Sierra Leone. Main article: Water supply in Sierra Leone. Further information: Ebola virus epidemic in Sierra Leone. Further information: Polygamy in Sierra Leone.

Further information: Sierra Leonean cuisine. Main article: Media of Sierra Leone. Main article: Sport in Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone portal Africa portal.

Sierra Leone Telegraph. Statistics Sierra Leone. Retrieved 28 March International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April World Bank.

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In the labour field, it is expected that the household will financially provide the needs of the family. Black immigrants elected different levels of Raven riley pornos representatives, Fuck me make me squirt, who represented each dozen settlers, and 'hundreders' who represented larger amounts. The president is the head of statethe head of government and the commander-in-chief of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces. Cerlebrity nudes Rice Research. Retrieved Elave nothing to hide naked commercial watch 720p hd May Archived from the original on 26 November

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Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other very peacefully, and religious violence is very rare.

Sierra Leone has relied on mining for its economic base, especially of diamonds. It is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite and a major producer of gold, and it has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile.

Despite this natural wealth, 53 per cent of its population lived in poverty in The country takes its name from the Lion Mountains near Freetown.

Originally named Serra Leoa Portuguese for "Lioness Mountains" by Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra in , the modern name is derived from the Italian spelling, which was introduced by Venetian explorer Alvise Cadamosto and subsequently copied by other European mapmakers.

Archaeological finds show that Sierra Leone has been inhabited continuously for at least 2, years, [19] populated successively by societies who migrated from other parts of Africa.

Sierra Leone's dense tropical rainforest and swampy environment was considered impenetrable; it was also host to the tsetse fly , which carried a disease fatal to horses and the zebu cattle used by the Mande people.

This environmental factor protected its people from conquests by the Mande and other African empires. European contacts within Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa in the 15th century.

Although according to the professor C. Magbaily Fyle this could have been a misinterpretation of historians: according to him, there has been evidence of travellers calling the region Serra Lyoa well before , the year when Sintra first arrived.

This would imply that the identity of the person who named Sierra Leone is unknown. Soon after Sintra's expedition, Portuguese traders arrived at the harbour.

By they had built a fortified trading post on the coast. In the late 18th century, many African-Americans claimed the protection of the British Crown.

There were thousands of these Black Loyalists , people of African descent who joined the British military forces during the American Revolutionary War.

The official documentation known as the Book of Negroes lists thousands of freed slaves whom the British evacuated from the nascent United States and resettled in colonies elsewhere in British North America north to Canada, or south to the West Indies.

It intended to resettle some of the " Black Poor of London", some of whom were African-Americans freed by the British during the war.

About blacks and 60 whites reached Sierra Leone on 15 May The group also included some West Indians of African descent from London.

After they established Granville Town , most of the first group of colonists died, owing to disease and warfare with the indigenous African peoples Temne , who resisted their encroachment.

Following the American Revolution , more than 3, Black Loyalists had also been settled in Nova Scotia , where they were finally granted land.

They founded Birchtown, Nova Scotia , but faced harsh winters and racial discrimination from nearby Shelburne, Nova Scotia.

Thomas Peters pressed British authorities for relief and more aid; together with British abolitionist John Clarkson , the Sierra Leone Company was established to relocate Black Loyalists who wanted to take their chances in West Africa.

The Settlers built Freetown in the styles they knew from their lives in the American South ; they also continued American fashion and American manners.

In addition, many continued to practise Methodism in Freetown. Black settlers in Sierra Leone enjoyed much more autonomy in that they were more politically engaged.

Black immigrants elected different levels of political representatives, 'tithingmen', who represented each dozen settlers, and 'hundreders' who represented larger amounts.

This sort of representation was not available in Nova Scotia. The Crown did not supply enough basic supplies and provisions, and the Settlers were continually threatened by illegal slave trading and the risk of re-enslavement.

In some of the settlers revolted. Led by Colonel Montague James , the Maroons helped the colonial forces to put down the revolt, and in the process the Jamaican Maroons in Sierra Leone secured the best houses and farms.

At about the same time following the abolition of the slave trade in , British crews delivered thousands of formerly enslaved Africans to Freetown, after liberating them from illegal slave ships.

Many recaptives were treated poorly and even abused because some of the original settlers considered them their property. Cut off from their various homelands and traditions, the Liberated Africans were forced to assimilate to the Western styles of Settlers and Maroons.

For example, some of the recaptives were forced to change their name to a more Western sounding one. Though some people happily embraced these changes because they considered it as being part of the community, some were not happy with these changes and wanted to keep their own identity.

Many recaptives were so unhappy that they risked the possibility of being sold back into slavery by leaving Sierra Leone and going back to their original villages.

These returned Africans were from many areas of Africa, but principally the west coast. During the 19th century, freed black Americans, some Americo Liberian 'refugees', and particularly West Indians, also immigrated and settled in Freetown.

Together these peoples created a new creole ethnicity called the Krio people initially called Creoles and a trading language, Krio , which became commonly used among many of the ethnicities in the country.

The settlement of Sierra Leone in the s was unique in that the population was composed of displaced Africans who were brought to the colony after the British abolition of the slave trade in Upon arrival in Sierra Leone, each "recaptive" was given a registration number, and information on their physical qualities would be entered into the Register of Liberated Africans.

However, oftentimes the documentation would be overwhelmingly subjective and would result in inaccurate entries, making them difficult to track.

In addition, differences between the Register of Liberated Africans of and the List of Captured Negroes of which emulated the document revealed some disparities in the entries of the recaptives, specifically in the names; many recaptives decided to change their given names to more anglicised versions which contributed to the difficulty in tracking them after they arrived in Sierra Leone.

According to the British Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade in , the recaptives could be subject to apprenticeships led by British colonists in Sierra Leone and the males enlisted into the Army or Navy.

According to Suzanne Schwartz, a historian on colonial Sierra Leone, in June a group of 21 men and women ran away to the nearby native settlement of Robiss and upon recapture were imprisoned by the settlers in Sierra Leone, thus contributing to the slavery-like qualities of the apprenticeship system.

In the early 19th century, Freetown served as the residence of the British colonial governor of the region, who also administered the Gold Coast now Ghana and the Gambia settlements.

Sierra Leone developed as the educational centre of British West Africa. For more than a century, it was the only European-style university in western Sub-Saharan Africa.

The British interacted mostly with the Krios in Freetown, who did most of the trading with the indigenous peoples of the interior.

In addition, educated Krios held numerous positions in the colonial government, giving them status and good-paying positions.

Following the Berlin Conference of —, the UK decided that it needed to establish more dominion over the inland areas, to satisfy what was described by the European powers as "effective occupation" of territories.

In it annexed these areas, declaring them the Sierra Leone Protectorate. In addition, the British annexation of the Protectorate interfered with the sovereignty of indigenous chiefs.

They designated chiefs as units of local government, rather than dealing with them individually as had been previous practice.

They did not maintain relationships even with longtime allies, such as Bai Bureh , chief of Kasseh, a community on the Small Scarcies River.

He was later unfairly portrayed as a prime instigator of the Hut Tax war in Colonel Frederic Cardew, military governor of the Protectorate, in established a new tax on dwellings and demanded that the chiefs use their peoples to maintain roads.

The taxes were often higher than the value of the dwellings, and 24 chiefs signed a petition to Cardew, stating how destructive this was; their people could not afford to take time off from their subsistence agriculture.

They resisted payment of taxes. Tensions over the new colonial requirements, and the administration's suspicions about the chiefs led to the Hut Tax war of , also called the Temne-Mende War.

The British fired first. The Northern front of majority Temne people was led by Bai Bureh. The Southern front, consisting mostly of Mende people , entered conflict somewhat later and for different reasons.

For several months, Bureh's fighters had the advantage over the vastly more powerful British forces, but the British troops and Bureh's warriors suffered hundreds of fatalities.

Although the British government recommended leniency, Cardew insisted on sending the chief and two allies into exile in the Gold Coast; [41] his government hanged 96 of the chief's warriors.

Bai Bureh was allowed to return in , when he resumed his chieftaincy of Kasseh. The defeat of the Temne and Mende in the Hut Tax war ended mass resistance to the Protectorate and colonial government, but intermittent rioting and labour unrest continued throughout the colonial period.

Riots in and involved "many tens of thousands" of Sierra Leonians in the protectorate. Domestic slavery , which continued to be practised by local African elites, was abolished in The monopoly was scheduled to last 98 years.

Mining of diamonds in the east and other minerals expanded, drawing labourers there from other parts of the country.

In , the UK government divided Sierra Leone into a Colony and a Protectorate, with different political systems constitutionally defined for each.

The Colony was Freetown and its coastal area; the Protectorate was defined as the hinterland areas dominated by local chiefs.

Antagonism between the two entities escalated to a heated debate in , when proposals were introduced to provide for a single political system for both the Colony and the Protectorate.

Most of the proposals came from leaders of the Protectorate, whose population far outnumbered that in the colony.

The Krios, led by Isaac Wallace-Johnson , opposed the proposals, as they would have resulted in reducing the political power of the Krios in the Colony.

Owing to the astute politics of Milton Margai of the Mende , the educated Protectorate elite was won over to join forces with the paramount chiefs in the face of Krio intransigence.

Later, Margai used the same skills to win over opposition leaders and moderate Krio elements to achieve independence from the UK.

The SLPP, which was then the most popular political party in the colony of Sierra Leone as well as being supported by the powerful paramount chiefs in the provinces, won the most seats in Parliament and Margai was re-elected as Chief Minister by a landslide.

Thousands of Sierra Leoneans took to the streets in celebration. The Dominion of Sierra Leone retained a parliamentary system of government and was a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

The leader of the main opposition All People's Congress APC , Siaka Stevens, along with Isaac Wallace-Johnson, another outspoken critic of the SLPP government, were arrested and placed under house arrest in Freetown, along with sixteen others charged with disrupting the independence celebration.

In May , Sierra Leone held its first general election as an independent nation. Margai was very popular among Sierra Leoneans during his time in power, most known for his self-effacement.

He was neither corrupt nor did he make a lavish display of his power or status. Margai used his conservative ideology to lead Sierra Leone without much strife.

He appointed government officials to represent various ethnic groups. Margai employed a brokerage style of politics, by sharing political power among political parties and interest groups; and with the powerful paramount chiefs in the provinces, most of whom were key allies of his government.

Soon after Albert Margai was sworn in as Prime Minister, he dismissed several senior government officials who had served under his elder brother Milton's government, viewing them as a threat to his administration, including Karefa-Smart.

Sir Albert resorted to increasingly authoritarian actions in response to protests and enacted several laws against the opposition All People's Congress APC , whilst attempting to establish a one-party state.

Accordingly, they began to consider Sir Albert a threat to the ruling houses across the country. Margai appointed many non-Creoles to the country's civil service in Freetown , in an overall diversification of the civil service in the capital, which had been dominated by members of the Creole ethnic group.

As a result, Albert Margai became unpopular in the Creole community, many of whom had supported Sir Milton. Margai was accused of favouring members of his own Mende ethnic group for prominent positions.

In , riots broke out in Freetown against Margai's policies; in response he declared a state of emergency across the country. Sir Albert was accused of corruption and of a policy of affirmative action in favour of his own Mende ethnic group.

Stevens was sworn in as Prime Minister on 21 March Within hours after taking office, Stevens was ousted in a bloodless military coup led by Brigadier General David Lansana , the commander of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces.

He was a close ally of Albert Margai, who had appointed him to the position in Lansana placed Stevens under house arrest in Freetown and insisted that the determination of Prime Minister should await the election of the tribal representatives to the House.

Upon his release, Stevens went into exile in Guinea. They reinstated the constitution and returned power to Stevens, who at last assumed the office of Prime Minister.

Stevens assumed power again in with a great deal of hope and ambition. Stevens had campaigned on a platform of bringing the tribes together under socialist principles.

Stevens reorganised the country's oil refinery, the government-owned Cape Sierra Hotel, and a cement factory.

Stevens began efforts that would later bridge the distance between the provinces and the city. Roads and hospitals were constructed in the provinces, and Paramount Chiefs and provincial peoples became a prominent force in Freetown.

Under pressure of several coup attempts, real or perceived, Stevens' rule grew more and more authoritarian , and his relationship with some of his ardent supporters deteriorated.

He removed the SLPP party from competitive politics in general elections, some believed, through the use of violence and intimidation.

After the return to civilian rule, by-elections were held beginning in autumn and an all-APC cabinet was appointed. Calm was not completely restored.

In November , unrest in the provinces led Stevens to declare a state of emergency across the country. Many senior officers in the Sierra Leone Army were greatly disappointed with Stevens' policies and his handling of the Sierra Leone Military, but none could confront Stevens.

Brigadier General Bangura, who had reinstated Stevens as Prime Minister, was widely considered the only person who could control Stevens.

The army was devoted to Bangura, and this made him potentially dangerous to Stevens. In January , Bangura was arrested and charged with conspiracy and plotting to commit a coup against the Stevens government.

After a trial that lasted a few months, Bangura was convicted and sentenced to death. On 29 March , Brigadier Bangura was executed by hanging in Freetown.

After the execution of Bangura, a group of soldiers loyal to the executed Brigadier Bangura held a mutiny in the capital Freetown and in some other parts of the country in opposition of Stevens' government.

Dozens of soldiers were arrested and convicted by a court martial in Freetown for their participation in the mutiny against president Stevens.

Among the soldiers arrested was a little known army Corporal Foday Sankoh , a strong supporter of Bangura. In April , a new republican constitution was adopted under which Stevens became president.

These problems became so severe that the SLPP boycotted the general election ; as a result the APC won 84 of the 85 elected seats.

An alleged plot to overthrow president Stevens failed in and its leaders were executed. In mid , Guinean soldiers, requested by Stevens, were in the country to help maintain his hold on power as Stevens was a close ally of then Guinean president Ahmed Sekou Toure.

In March , Stevens was elected without opposition for a second five-year term as president. On 19 July , 14 senior army and government officials including David Lansana, former cabinet minister Mohamed Sorie Forna father of writer Aminatta Forna , Brigadier General Ibrahim Bash Taqi and Lieutenant Habib Lansana Kamara were executed after being convicted of allegedly attempting a coup to topple president Stevens' government.

In , a nationwide student demonstration against the government disrupted Sierra Leone politics. The demonstration was quickly put down by the army and Stevens' own personal Special Security Division SSD force, a heavily armed paramilitary force he had created to protect him and to maintain his hold on power.

In , the APC-dominant parliament approved a new constitution making the country a one-party state. Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods and government corruption, but on a positive note, he kept the country stable and from collapsing into civil war.

He built several government institutions that are still in use today. Siaka Stevens retired from politics in November after being in power for eighteen years.

The APC named a new presidential candidate to succeed Stevens at their last delegate conference held in Freetown in November Like Stevens, Momoh was also a member of the minority Limba ethnic group.

Momoh was elected president as the only contesting candidate, without any opposition, and was sworn in as Sierra Leone's second president on 28 November in Freetown.

A one-party parliamentary election between APC members was held in May President Momoh appointed his former military colleague and key ally, Major General Mohamed Tarawalie to succeed him as the head of the Sierra Leone Military.

Major General Tarawalie was also a strong loyalist and key supporter of president Momoh. Bambay Kamara was a key loyalist and strong supporter of President Momoh.

The Sierra Leone Police under Bambay Kamara's leadership, was accused of physical violence, arrest and intimidation against critics of President Momoh's government.

President Momoh's strong links with the army and his verbal attacks on corruption earned him much-needed initial support among Sierra Leoneans.

With the lack of new faces in the new APC cabinet under president Momoh and the return of many of the old faces from Stevens' government, criticisms soon arose that Momoh was simply perpetuating the rule of Stevens.

The next couple of years under the Momoh administration were characterised by corruption, which Momoh defused by sacking several senior cabinet ministers.

After an alleged attempt to overthrow President Momoh in March , more than 60 senior government officials were arrested, including Vice-President Francis Minah , who was removed from office, convicted of plotting the coup, and executed by hanging in along with 5 others.

In October , owing to mounting pressure from both within and outside the country for political and economic reform, president Momoh set up a constitutional review commission to assess the one-party constitution.

There was great suspicion that president Momoh was not serious about his promise of political reform, as APC rule continued to be increasingly marked by abuses of power.

The brutal civil war that was going on in neighbouring Liberia played a significant role in the outbreak of fighting in Sierra Leone.

Sankoh was a British trained former army corporal who had also undergone guerrilla training in Libya. Taylor's aim was for the RUF to attack the bases of Nigerian dominated peacekeeping troops in Sierra Leone who were opposed to his rebel movement in Liberia.

Strasser became the world's youngest Head of State when he seized power just three days after his 25th birthday.

The NPRC junta established the National Supreme Council of State as the military highest command and final authority in all matters, and was exclusively made up of the highest ranking NPRC soldiers, included Strasser himself and the original soldiers who toppled president Momoh.

Turay, a key loyalist of ousted president Momoh. A heavily armed military manhunt took place across the country to find Lieutenant Sandy's killer.

However, the main suspect, Major S. M Turay, went into hiding and fled the country to Guinea, fearing for his life.

Dozens of soldiers loyal to the ousted president Momoh were arrested, including Colonel Kahota M. Dumbuya and Major Yayah Turay. The NPRC Junta immediately suspended the constitution, banned all political parties, limited freedom of speech and freedom of the press and enacted a rule-by-decree policy, in which soldiers were granted unlimited powers of administrative detention without charge or trial, and challenges against such detentions in court were precluded.

Dumbuya and former inspector general of police Bambay Kamara, was foiled. Several Junior army officers led by Sergeant Mohamed Lamin Bangura were identified as being behind the coup plot.

Several prominent members of the Momoh government who had been in detention at the Pa Demba Road prison, including former inspector general of police Bambay Kamara, were also executed.

On 5 July the deputy NPRC leader Sergeant Solomon Musa, who was very popular with the general population, particularly in Freetown, was arrested and sent into exile after he was accused of planning a coup to topple Strasser, an accusation Sergeant Musa denied.

More and more of the country fell to RUF fighters, and by they held much of the diamond-rich Eastern Province and were at the edge of Freetown.

In his first public broadcast to the nation following the coup, Brigadier Bio stated that his support for returning Sierra Leone to a democratically elected civilian government and his commitment to ending the civil war were his motivations for the coup.

President Kabbah took power with a great promise of ending the civil war. Corporal Gborie quickly went to the Sierra Leone Broadcasting Services headquarters in New England, Freetown to announce the coup to a shocked nation and to alert all soldiers across the country to report for guard duty.

The soldiers immediately released Koroma from prison and installed him as their chairman and Head of State. Koroma suspended the constitution, banned demonstrations, shut down all private radio stations in the country and invited the RUF to join the new junta government, with its leader Foday Sankoh as the Vice-Chairman of the new AFRC-RUF coalition junta government.

Within days, Freetown was overwhelmed by the presence of the RUF combatants who came to the city in thousands. The Kamajors, a group of traditional fighters mostly from the Mende ethnic group under the command of deputy Defence Minister Samuel Hinga Norman , remained loyal to President Kabbah and defended the Southern part of Sierra Leone from the soldiers.

After nine months in office, the junta was overthrown by the Nigerian-led ECOMOG forces, and the democratically elected government of president Kabbah was reinstated in February On 19 October 24 soldiers in the Sierra Leone army were executed by firing squad after they were convicted in a court martial in Freetown, some for orchestrating the coup that overthrew President Kabbah and others for failure to reverse the mutiny.

In October , the United Nations agreed to send peacekeepers to help restore order and disarm the rebels.

The first of the 6,member force began arriving in December, and the UN Security Council voted in February to increase the force to 11,, and later to 13, But in May, when nearly all Nigerian forces had left and UN forces were trying to disarm the RUF in eastern Sierra Leone, Sankoh 's forces clashed with the UN troops, and some peacekeepers were taken hostage as the peace accord effectively collapsed.

The hostage crisis resulted in more fighting between the RUF and the government as UN troops launched Operation Khukri to end the siege.

The situation in the country deteriorated to such an extent that British troops were deployed in Operation Palliser , originally simply to evacuate foreign nationals.

However, the British exceeded their original mandate, and took full military action to finally defeat the rebels and restore order. The British were the catalyst for the ceasefire that ended the civil war.

Elements of the British Army , together with administrators and politicians, remain in Sierra Leone to this day, [ when? Tony Blair , the Prime Minister of Britain at the time of the British intervention, is regarded as a hero by the people of Sierra Leone, many of whom are keen for more British involvement.

Between and , about 50, people were killed in Sierra Leone's civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced from their homes and many became refugees in Guinea and Liberia.

In , UN forces moved into rebel-held areas and began to disarm rebel soldiers. By January , the war was declared over. In May , Kabbah was re-elected president by a landslide.

By , the disarmament process was complete. Also in , a UN-backed war crimes court began holding trials of senior leaders from both sides of the war.

In August , Sierra Leone held presidential and parliamentary elections. Koroma was re-elected president for a second and final term in November In an Ebola virus epidemic in Sierra Leone began, which had widespread impact on the country, [67] including forcing Sierra Leone to declare a state of emergency.

In early August Sierra Leone cancelled league football soccer matches because of the Ebola epidemic. Several mudslides occurred around AM on the fourteenth of August in and near the country's capital Freetown.

In , Sierra Leone held a general election. The country is bordered by Guinea to the north and east, Liberia to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and southwest.

The upper part of the drainage basin of the Moa River is located in the south of this region. The northern section of this has been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as part of the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic ecoregion , while the south is rain-forested plains and farmland.

The coast has areas of low-lying Guinean mangroves swamp. The national capital Freetown sits on a coastal peninsula , situated next to the Sierra Leone Harbour.

Human activities claimed to be responsible or contributing to land degradation in Sierra Leone include unsustainable agricultural land use, poor soil and water management practices, deforestation, removal of natural vegetation, fuelwood consumption and to a lesser extent overgrazing and urbanisation.

Deforestation , both for commercial timber and to make room for agriculture, is the major concern and represents an enormous loss of natural economic wealth to the nation.

There are concerns that heavy logging continues in the Tama-Tonkoli Forest Reserve in the north. Overfishing is also an issue in Sierra Leone.

Habitat degradation for the African wild dog , Lycaon pictus , has been increased, such that this canid is deemed to have been extirpated in Sierra Leone.

Until , Sierra Leone lacked a forest management system because of the civil war that caused tens of thousands of deaths.

Deforestation rates have increased 7. The country has 2, known species of higher plants, mammals , birds, 67 reptiles , 35 amphibians , and 99 fish species.

The Environmental Justice Foundation has documented how the number of illegal fishing vessels in Sierra Leone's waters has multiplied in recent years.

The amount of illegal fishing has significantly depleted fish stocks, depriving local fishing communities of an important resource for survival.

The situation is particularly serious as fishing provides the only source of income for many communities in a country still recovering from over a decade of civil war.

Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. Sierra Leone has a dominant unitary central government and a weak local government.

The executive branch of the Government of Sierra Leone, headed by the president of Sierra Leone has extensive powers and influences.

The president is the most powerful government official in Sierra Leone. Within the confines of the Constitution, supreme legislative powers are vested in Parliament , which is the law making body of the nation.

Supreme executive authority rests in the president and members of his cabinet and judicial power with the judiciary of which the Chief Justice of Sierra Leone is the head.

The president is the head of state , the head of government and the commander-in-chief of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces.

The president appoints and heads a cabinet of ministers, which must be approved by the Parliament. The president is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two five-year terms.

The president is the highest and most influential position within the government of Sierra Leone. Next to the president is the Vice-president , who is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Sierra Leone Government.

As designated by the Sierra Leone Constitution, the vice-president is to become the new president of Sierra Leone upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President.

The Parliament of Sierra Leone is unicameral , with seats. Each of the country's fourteen districts is represented in parliament.

The Sierra Leone parliament is led by the Speaker of Parliament, who is the overall leader of Parliament and is directly elected by sitting members of parliament.

The current speaker of the Sierra Leone parliament is Sheku Badara Bashiru Dumbuya , who was elected by members of parliament on 21 January The current members of Parliament of Sierra Leone were elected in the Sierra Leone parliamentary election.

To be qualified as Member of Parliament, the person must be a citizen of Sierra Leone, must be at least 21 years old, must be able to speak, read and write the English language with a degree of proficiency to enable him to actively take part in proceedings in Parliament; and must not have any criminal conviction.

Other minor political parties have also existed but with no significant support. The judicial power of Sierra Leone is vested in the judiciary , headed by the Chief Justice of Sierra Leone and comprising the Supreme Court of Sierra Leone, which is the highest court in the country, meaning that its rulings therefore cannot be appealed against.

Other courts include the High Court of Justice, the Court of Appeal, the magistrate courts, and traditional courts in rural villages.

The president appoints and parliament approves Justices for the three courts. The Judiciary have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal matters throughout the country.

Sierra Leone has good relations with the West, including the United States, and has maintained historical ties with the United Kingdom and other former British colonies through its membership of the Commonwealth of Nations.

It is primarily designed to implement development projects and promote regional economic integration between the three countries.

Three provinces are further divided into 12 districts; and the Western Area is divided into two districts. The provincial districts are divided into chiefdoms, which have traditionally been led by paramount chiefs , recognised by the British administration in at the time of organising the Protectorate of Sierra Leone.

The Paramount Chiefs are very influential, particularly in villages and small rural towns. Within the context of local governance, the districts are governed as localities.

Each has a directly elected local district council to exercise authority and carry out functions at a local level. The armed forces were formed after independence in , on the basis of elements of the former British Royal West African Frontier Force present in the country.

The President of Sierra Leone is the Commander in Chief of the military, with the Minister of Defence responsible for defence policy and the formulation of the armed forces.

The Military of Sierra Leone also has a Chief of the Defence Staff who is a uniformed military official responsible for the administration and the operational control of the Sierra Leone military.

Sierra Leone Police was established by the British colony in ; it is one of the oldest police forces in West Africa.

It works to prevent crime, protect life and property, detect and prosecute offenders, maintain public order , ensure safety and security, and enhance access to justice.

Each one of Sierra Leone's 14 districts is headed by a district police commissioner who is the professional head of their respective district.

Male same-sex sexual activity is illegal under Section 61 of the Offences against the Person Act , and imprisonment for life is possible.

By the s economic activity was declining and economic infrastructure had become seriously degraded. Over the next decade much of the formal economy was destroyed in the country's civil war.

Since the end of hostilities in January , massive infusions of outside assistance have helped Sierra Leone begin to recover. Much of the recovery will depend on the success of the government's efforts to limit corruption by officials, which many feel was the chief cause for the civil war.

A key indicator of success will be the effectiveness of government management of its diamond sector. There is high unemployment, particularly among the youth and ex-combatants.

Authorities have been slow to implement reforms in the civil service, and the pace of the privatisation programme is also slackening and donors have urged its advancement.

The currency is the leone. The central bank is the Bank of Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone operates a floating exchange rate system, and foreign currencies can be exchanged at any of the commercial banks, recognised foreign exchange bureaux and most hotels.

Credit card use is limited in Sierra Leone, though they may be used at some hotels and restaurants. There are a few internationally linked automated teller machines that accept Visa cards in Freetown operated by ProCredit Bank.

Two-thirds of the population of Sierra Leone are directly involved in subsistence agriculture. Agriculture is the largest employer with 80 per cent of the population working in the sector.

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